Intrauterine growth retardation or retardation occurs when the fetus develops slower than it should and does not increase according to normal graphics and parameters. It is also referred to as fetal growth delay (IUGR) and is the second cause of perinatal death after prematurity.
What are the causes of late fetal growth?
The fetus may slow down if it does not receive enough oxygen or nutrients to develop. Very rarely can this be a genetic defect that is the basis for its growth retardation. Here are other causes of intrauterine growth retardation: placenta abnormalities or other medical complications (through the placenta the fetus receives both oxygen and nutrients to feed, so if it is too small, formed incorrectly or starts to detach of the uterus earlier - placenta abruptio - it no longer works normally; certain diseases of the mother (chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, diseases of the heart or kidneys, certain types of anemia, advanced diabetes, blood or lung coagulation diseases; abnormalities chromosomes (Down syndrome, structural abnormalities from birth such as anencephaly, etc.); a disorganized and vicious lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, drug or drug abuse - anriconsulsive); multiple pregnancy; certain infections that can be transmitted to the fetus (toxoplasmosis, syphilis, rubella, etc.); malnutrition (a poor diet during pregnancy).
How does the delay in intrauterine growth affect the baby or baby after birth?
Babies diagnosed with intrauterine growth retardation may have complications in the sacina, at birth or afterwards. The degree of risk depends very much on the cause that led to this problem, how severe the delay is, how early it appears in pregnancy and the gestational age of the fetus. Doctors say that if the baby grows by 3-5% less than there should be very high chances of suffering complications: it can be born dead (due to the restriction of oxygen and nutrients); low blood sugar; extremely low immune system and low resistance of the body to infections; abnormalities of red blood cells; jaundice; meconium aspiration syndrome. In the long term, the consequences of intrauterine growth retardation may vary. The specialists found problems or slowdowns at several levels in the child's development. Others have associated this problem with cerebral palsy or obesity at maturity. Also, the risk of type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure is higher in children born with this delay.
How can the doctor realize how big the baby is in the tummy?
During the first pelvic or gynecological examination of pregnancy the doctor measures the size of your uterus. At the same time, the doctor can predict a probable date of birth and can make certain predictions regarding its evolution. After that, he checks how the fetus grows and develops depending on how much your belly measures at each prenatal check.
What can be done for the girl?
If doctors suspect a delayed growth in the intrauterine cavity they will give you a detailed and possible ultrasonography and amniocentesis to detect all chromosomal defects. If congenital anomalies are discovered and the delay is detected at the beginning of the pregnancy, you can choose to interrupt the pregnancy. The doctor will resort to complete blood tests and other investigations and will keep you under close supervision, calling you for a consultation every 2 weeks. If you are approaching the pregnancy deadline (week 37) and your baby is no longer able to withstand the intrauterine or cannot cope with a natural birth, your doctor may require caesarean section. Also, if other complications occur that could endanger your life or your baby, then resort to premature birth.
Can the fetal growth delay be prevented?
It is essential to go to all prenatal visits to the doctor and to do all the tests recommended by the doctor. Also, a healthy lifestyle, with a balanced diet rich in nutrients essential for fetal growth can keep you from such a complication. Do not consume alcohol, do not smoke or take medicines without the doctor's consent. Don't forget about prenatal vitamins, which are so important to your baby's health.
Tags Intrauterine development Pregnancy complications