Myopia in children

Myopia in children

Myopia is one of the most known eye defects and often occurs in children. Most manifest a progressive form of myopia, which worsens in childhood. But this refractive defect can be corrected with appropriate glasses and up to 20 years can completely heal it.

What are the causes of myopia?

Myopia is characterized by the impossibility of clearly seeing objects from a distance, but with a good view of their close up. In people with myopia, the eyeball is slightly longer than usual or the cornea is too curved. The rays of light that form the images a child sees focus on the front of the eyeball, instead of focusing on the retina, which is the most sensitive part of the eye to light. When this happens, remote objects appear blurred or unclear.

Progressive myopia is predominantly genetic. Children inherit a predisposition to manifest the disease from their parents.

Certain factors that work with objects that require attention and long attention to detail or that require a closer look at them in the longer term can influence the evolution of the disease. If the muscle of the eye does not relax sufficiently at a certain time, the eye remains in a contracted state, and the child will have difficulty seeing in the distance.

What are the symptoms of myopia in children?

Most often small children complain that they cannot see certain things at a certain distance from them. Also, you might notice that the little one is very close to looking at an object to see it well. Follow the child and see if he or she is frowning when looking at something (especially a distant object), look with eyes wide open or blink very often. It is important to go with the child to the ophthalmological control in the first year of life, then every 3 years and then every 2 years, especially if there are people in the family who have had or still have this disease.

What are the complications of myopia?

If the myopia is not detected in time in the child, especially before 6 years, it can lead to the appearance of amblyopia (lazy eye), and, later, to blindness of the affected eye. Severe myopia can lead to other quite serious complications on vision and eye health:

  • retinal detachment;
  • macular degeneration (a medical condition in which the most sensitive part of the retina degenerates, and the central part of the vision is affected);
  • glaucoma (a condition in which there is an increase in fluid pressure in the eye);
  • cataracts (a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes opaque).

How is myopia treated in children?

Controversies still exist if progressive myopia can be stopped from evolution in children. Some studies suggest that the use of atropine combined with bifocal lenses slows myopia progression. A child with myopia needs to wear glasses. They are made to order, depending on the severity of the disease and according to the directions of the ophthalmologist and have the role of helping the child to see objects from a distance. The lenses for correcting myopia must be divergent (minus). The eyeglass frame should be made of plastic, lightweight and stable so as not to put pressure and not to disturb the child. As he grows up and is able to take care of himself, he can wear contact lenses.

Ophthalmologists argue that the age appropriate for switching to contact lenses is adolescent, when they develop a greater degree of responsibility and independence. Surgery to correct myopia is not recommended in children, because the eyeball of the eyes is developing in childhood.

Otherwise, children who do homework or read closely should take a 3-5 minute break every 30-40 minutes and relax their eyes. He must try to look at the glass or other objects in the distance. If detected early, the child wears appropriate glasses and regularly attends the doctor, myopia may disappear until he turns 20.

Tags Eye disorders