High blood pressure during pregnancy is a threat to the health of the baby, but also to the mother. This problem affects 1 in 6 pregnant women and requires emergency medical care. It can cause serious pregnancy complications such as eclampsia, preeclampsia or premature birth or placenta complications.
What is it hypertension and what are its causes?
Normally, a pregnant woman's blood pressure drops in the second trimester of pregnancy. Then it returns to normal until the end of pregnancy. But in the case of some women, it is just the opposite. The pressure increases too much even in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.
Hypertension occurs during pregnancy when systolic blood pressure exceeds level 30 and diastolic blood pressure 15.
Doctors are not quite sure what causes the increase in blood pressure in pregnancy.
Types of hypertension in pregnancy
- Chronic hypertension - when the blood pressure rises before 20 weeks of pregnancy and persists after birth (even after 12 weeks);
- Gestational hypertension - which appears after the 20th week of pregnancy and disappears by itself after birth;
- Preeclampsia - also called pregnancy-induced hypertension - appears after the 20th week of pregnancy, and in contrast to the gestational one, it also appears in urine protein for analysis.
What are pregnant women at risk?
Some women are more likely than others to develop this condition as others during pregnancy:
- young pregnant women (under 17 years old) or over 35 years of age at first pregnancy;
- family history of patients with high blood pressure;
- women with multiple pregnancy;
- overweight pregnant women;
- pregnant women who smoke (whether they did it before or during pregnancy - smoking is a risk factor for this medical condition);
- those that do not feed properly in pregnancy;
- future mothers who do not take the appropriate prenatal vitamins;
- those suffering from problems such as diabetes, circulatory disorders, heart disease, etc.
What are the complications for the baby and the mother?
It seems that this disease starts in pregnancy, in the case of those at risk, only from the 24th week of pregnancy.
For some pregnant women this problem is a sign that the baby is under stress. Complications may also include:
- delay in intrauterine growth;
- problems with oxygen transport to the fetus;
- low birth weight;
- problems of the placenta;
- premature birth.
Hypertension can also lead to other pregnancy complications: preeclampsia or eclampsia. These are extremely dangerous problems for the baby and the mother, endangering their lives. When these complications occur, it is called pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Moms are also subject to complications and may develop kidney failure, breathing problems or even heart attack.
How is hypertension treated in pregnancy?
If your doctor diagnoses high blood pressure during pregnancy, he or she will initially begin careful monitoring of your condition. This means that doctor visits will multiply.
It is also possible to recommend bed rest for a certain period or even until birth.
Your doctor will recommend you do more blood and urine tests to determine if your kidneys are affected. If the test results indicate problems with the kidneys, hospitalization is possible. In addition, if problems develop, physicians may need to cause birth.
Premature birth is often the only effective treatment for stabilizing blood pressure in pregnancy.
High blood pressure in pregnancy is a delicate condition. It endangers both mother and baby and rarely find solutions or treatments that manage to maintain the health of both.
Hypertensive pregnancy is responsible for 1/5 of the cases of maternal mortality and 1/4 of the deaths of the fetus.
Tags Pregnancy hypertension Gestational hypertension Gestational hypertension